In people with cancer, the abscopal effect occurs when radiation—or another type of localized therapy—shrinks a targeted tumor but also causes untreated tumors in the body to shrink. One day, not only will it be possible to molecularly characterize a patient’s cancer cells, but the cellular components of their tumor—and even the composition of their intestinal or tumor microbiome—will inform treatment decisions. The findings could lead to strategies for boosting cancer immunotherapies. How CRISPR Is Changing Cancer Research and Treatment, A New FDA Approval Furthers the Role of Genomics in Cancer Care, More Evidence that Ruxolitinib Benefits Some Patients with Graft-Versus-Host Disease, NCI Initiative Aims to Boost CAR T-Cell Therapy Clinical Trials, Experimental Drug Prevents Doxorubicin from Harming the Heart, Health of Gut Microbes May Affect Survival after Stem Cell Transplant, Analyzing Tumor RNA May Help Match Patients with Most Effective Cancer Treatments, Mouse Study Points to Strategy for Preserving Bone During Chemotherapy. Weekly Cancer News: Latest Developments in Cancer Research and Treatment for March. NEW YORK, Jan. 21, 2021 /PRNewswire/ -- Stand Up To Cancer® (SU2C) today announced $3.25 million in grants from four national nonprofits to fund research to … Although more development and clinical testing are needed, the availability of these targeted treatments will be a hallmark of unprecedented progress for patients who have few therapeutic options. When given at the same time, two immune checkpoint inhibitors were ineffective against breast cancer growth in mice, a new study found. Two compounds that target components of the circadian clock killed several types of cancer cells in the lab and slowed the growth of brain tumors in mice without harming healthy cells, a new study showed. Results from a clinical trial suggest that, in patients with brain metastases, an advanced radiotherapy technique limits harm to patients’ cognitive function without affecting the treatment’s effect on tumors. Objective To quantify the association of cancer treatment delay and mortality for each four week increase in delay to inform cancer treatment pathways. Clinicians will benefit from expert analysis of both standard treatment options and the latest therapeutic innovations and from provision of clear guidance on the management of clinical challenges in daily practice. A new study has found the commonly used chemotherapy drug cisplatin is retained in the inner ear of mice and humans for long periods. A novel approach to analyzing tumors may bring precision cancer medicine to more patients. As more people survive cancer for longer periods, there is a renewed interest in developing new, nonaddictive approaches for managing their chronic pain. Improving Cancer Immunotherapy: Overcoming the Problem of ‘Exhausted’ T Cells, Helping Dogs—and Humans—with Cancer: NCI’s Comparative Oncology Studies, Researchers Turn On PTEN Tumor-Suppressor Protein in Cancer Cells, When Cancer Spreads to Bone, A Single Dose of Radiation Therapy May Control Pain, New Drugs, New Side Effects: Complications of Cancer Immunotherapy, Immunotherapy Drug with Two Targets Shows Promise against HPV-Related Cancers, Treating KSHV-Associated Multicentric Castleman Disease, Harnessing T-cell “stemness” could enhance cancer immunotherapy. Experiments in mice suggested that the response pattern may be due to an age-related shift in the kinds of immune cells in tumors. Additional cancer treatment innovations are on the horizon. The NCI Experimental Therapeutics (NExT) program works with researchers and top scientific experts to advance promising or novel cancer therapies from the earliest stages of research to human clinical trials. Dr. Judith Paice, of the Cancer Pain Program at Northwestern University’s Feinberg School of Medicine, discusses the impacts of the opioid epidemic on cancer patients and how providers can address concerns about opioid misuse when managing cancer pain. Despite the tremendous progress made in recent decades in treating many types of cancer, effective therapies are still lacking for some forms of the disease, including liver cancer, pancreatic cancer, and certain types of adult and pediatric brain cancer. An NCI-funded clinical trial is testing the immunotherapy drug nivolumab (Opdivo) in people who have advanced cancer and an autoimmune disease, such as rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, or multiple sclerosis, who are often excluded from such trials. Cancer, also called malignancy, is an abnormal growth of cells. Researchers have engineered an oncolytic virus to kill cancer cells and boost the immune response against tumors. When combined with immunotherapy, the treatment was effective at eliminating tumors in mice. Because of the multifactorial nature of drug resistance and the high cost of clinical trials of novel drugs, many challenges arise for translational research to identify new, effective therapeutic targets that can be applied for the treatment of cancer with adaptive resistance. They also found a natural compound, I3C, that in lab studies could flip the on switch. A new study provides insight into how cancer immunotherapy works and suggests ways to enhance the treatment’s effectiveness. Could Cholesterol-Lowering Drugs Improve Cancer Immunotherapy? Are biosimilars effective and will they expand treatment options for patients? Treatment for cancer. Research on the treatment of cancer is fundamental to improving outcomes for all patients affected by the disease. Understanding cancer research study design and how to … A small but growing number of patients with cancer are being treated with oncolytic viruses, which infect and kill tumor cells. Research has shown how well these drugs can delay cancer growth, in many cases by years. ... MSK is now offering COVID-19 vaccine to patients age 65 and over who live in New York State and are in active treatment with MSK on or after 1/1/20. A new study conducted primarily in mice suggests that chemotherapy given before surgery for breast cancer can cause changes in cells in and around the tumor that are tied to an increased risk of the cancer spreading to other areas of the body. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Researchers have developed a nanoparticle that trains immune cells to attack cancer. American Cancer Society website. Estimating the Cost of Growing the NHS Cancer Workforce in England by 2029. Managing Cancer Pain: Are Better Approaches on the Horizon? NCI’s contributions are reflected in the fact that: Breakthroughs in molecularly targeted therapies and immunotherapy have revolutionized the cancer treatment landscape for patients. NCI’s Developmental Therapeutics Program(DTP), which is also part of DCTD, has a repository of more than 400,000 compounds that have gone through some kind of screening process. Study finds elevated risk of certain rare blood cancers after chemotherapy for most solid tumors, Tailored Radiation to Treat Brain Metastases Reduces Impact on Cognitive Function, NCI-MATCH Update: More Labs, New Arms, and Initial Findings, Heart Problems: Investigating the Cardiac Side Effects of Cancer Treatments, Integrating Geriatric Assessment into Cancer Care: A Conversation with Dr. Supriya Mohile, High-Fat Diet or Diabetes Drug May Enhance Response to Targeted Cancer Drug, Mouse Study Links Immune Cells to Diarrhea Caused by Chemotherapy, The Opioid Epidemic and Cancer Pain Management: A Conversation with Dr. Judith Paice. New findings from a clinical trial suggest that a single dose of radiation therapy may control painful bone metastases as effectively as multiple lower doses of radiation therapy. The findings were published in Nature Medicine. This future will only be possible through additional research investment. RAND Research Topic: Cancer Treatment. NCI has played a vital role in cancer drug discovery and development for more than 50 years. This section describes the research behind many of the recommendations and standards of practice related to breast cancer discussed in other sections. Bone loss associated with chemotherapy appears to be induced by cells that stop dividing but do not die, a recent study in mice suggests. Cholesterol-lowering drugs known as PCSK9 inhibitors may improve the effectiveness of cancer immune checkpoint inhibitors, according to studies in mice. The findings could be the basis for developing new treatments for patients with cancer who develop gastrointestinal side effects from chemotherapy. Initial results from a series of three small clinical trials of a targeted cancer therapy called larotrectinib suggest that it may be effective in patients—children and adults—with a wide variety of cancer types. Percy Ivy and Louis Staudt of NCI analyzed tumor tissue—and normal tissue, when available—from 111 patients enrolled in the initiative. Researchers are trying to better understand this phenomenon and take advantage of it … According to the NCI-funded study, the nanoparticle slowed the growth of melanoma in mice and was more effective when combined with an immune checkpoint inhibitor. NCI’s Dr. Lyndsay Harris provides an update on the NCI-MATCH trial, including the opening of new trial treatment arms and the addition of new laboratories to perform testing on tumor samples of prospective trial participants. Researchers have identified proteins that may play a central role in transforming T cells from powerful destroyers to depleted bystanders that can no longer harm cancer cells. In this pilot study, patients with KSHV-associated multicentric Castleman disease will receive intravenous tocilizumab every other week for up to 12 weeks. NCI funds research to improve the effectiveness and use of these treatments. Complementary & Alternative Medicine (CAM), Coping with Your Feelings During Advanced Cancer, Emotional Support for Young People with Cancer, Young People Facing End-of-Life Care Decisions, Late Effects of Childhood Cancer Treatment, Tech Transfer & Small Business Partnerships, Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research, Milestones in Cancer Research and Discovery, Step 1: Application Development & Submission, How to Work With Your Health Insurance Plan, Questions to Ask about Treatment Clinical Trials, Drugs Approved for Different Types of Cancer, Drugs Approved for Conditions Related to Cancer. Cancer Metabolism. Researchers have shown that fat cells can absorb two commonly used chemotherapy drugs and break them down chemically into a less toxic form, potentially reducing the drugs’ effectiveness. Off Target: Investigating the Abscopal Effect as a Treatment for Cancer, Overcoming a Cancer Nemesis? Earlier Treatments These newer drugs were first approved for use only after other treatments stopped working. www.cancer.org.Accessed May 6, 2020. The result is a single hybrid molecule called a Y-trap that blocks two pathways used by tumors to evade the immune system. In the case of permitted digital reproduction, please credit the National Cancer Institute as the source and link to the original NCI product using the original product's title; e.g., “Cancer Treatment Research was originally published by the National Cancer Institute.”, Complementary & Alternative Medicine (CAM), Coping with Your Feelings During Advanced Cancer, Emotional Support for Young People with Cancer, Young People Facing End-of-Life Care Decisions, Late Effects of Childhood Cancer Treatment, Tech Transfer & Small Business Partnerships, Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research, Milestones in Cancer Research and Discovery, Step 1: Application Development & Submission, Opportunities in Cancer Research: The Immune System and Microbiome, Cancer Drug Resistance: Unraveling Its Complexity, Learning from Every Patient to Improve CAR T-Cell Therapies, Making the Case for Biomarkers in Cancer Treatment, NCI Division of Cancer Treatment and Diagnosis, NCI and the Precision Medicine Initiative®, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Approximately half of the drugs currently used to treat patients with cancer were discovered and/or developed by NCI-supported researchers. A new observational study compared the safety and effectiveness of proton therapy and traditional radiation in adults with advanced cancer. In a large study, patients with nonmetastatic breast, lung, or colorectal cancer who chose alternative therapies had substantially worse survival than patients who received conventional cancer treatments. Posted: January 28, 2020. Patients who do not benefit from tocilizumab therapy alone may go on to receive high-dose AZT and valganciclovir in addition to tocilizumab. This Cancer Currents story explores the research on these emerging therapies. NCI’s major objectives include: If you would like to reproduce some or all of this content, see Reuse of NCI Information for guidance about copyright and permissions. Efforts to grow South Florida as a cancer research hub have started to bear fruit. The NCI-MATCH precision medicine clinical trial has reached a milestone with the release of results from several study treatment arms. Unfortunately, because cancer is such a complicated topic, figuring out where to begin can be extremely difficult. Removing or destroying all the cancer cells is not the only goal in treating thymomas. ... Cancer Research UK is a registered charity in England and Wales (1089464), Scotland (SC041666), the Isle of Man (1103) and Jersey (247). Is Proton Therapy Safer than Traditional Radiation? All patients with cancer will have safe and effective treatments. Cancers are one of the main causes of death worldwide. The investigational immunotherapy drug bintrafusp alfa (also called M7824), a bifunctional fusion protein, shrank the tumors of some patients with advanced HPV-related cancers, according to results from a phase 1 clinical trial. In a new study, the virus provided T cells around tumors with a hormone they need for their own cell-killing functions. Learn how these drugs may help improve the treatment of head and neck, liver, and lung cancers. Additional investments in cancer treatment research will further improve the outlook for both adults and children with cancer. Cardiologists and oncologists met recently to discuss strategies and future research directions for addressing these side effects. NCI is developing the capability to produce cellular therapies, like CAR T cells, to be tested in cancer clinical trials at multiple hospital sites. Cancer patients who have survived without medical treatment and fighting off with their will power and meditation Controversial differences between radiation and chemo therapies. As the patents on some widely used drugs to treat cancer expire in the coming years, biosimilar drugs are being developed for the treatment of patients with cancer. Identifying and characterizing new targets for cancer treatment, such as abnormal proteins that are responsible for cancer cell survival, growth, and spread, Developing new ways to leverage the rapid progress in cancer immunotherapy to benefit more patients, including, Understanding the mechanisms of drug resistance, a major cause of treatment failure in patients, and developing strategies that target these mechanisms, including the use of, Identifying and developing additional biomarkers to monitor treatment benefits and harms and to aid clinicians in selecting the most appropriate treatments for patients, Understanding how to combine therapies, including different types of treatment (for example, radiotherapy with immunotherapy), Tailoring treatments to avoid overtreatment and avoidable toxic side effects (for example, by conducting de-escalation studies), Advancing the development of precision radiotherapy to target tumors more precisely and spare the surrounding normal tissue from radiation damage, Supporting innovations in cancer surgery, including approaches to minimize the impact on normal tissues. Exposure to radiation in scans may be upping the risk for testicular cancer… Preliminary results from an NCI-sponsored study of an immunotherapy drug show that people with HIV can safely participate in clinical trials. Researchers who study exceptional responders—patients who have dramatic and long-lasting responses to treatments for cancer that were not effective for most similar patients—met recently to discuss the state of the science in this emerging field. Immunotherapy is one of the hottest topics in cancer research. This Cancer Currents story explores how the tests are used and who can get the tests. Few laboratories and centers have the capability to make CAR T cells, which has limited the ability to test them more broadly. For example, recent research is creating optimism that, one day, there may be targeted treatments for so-called “undruggable” cancer targets, including the oncoproteins RAS and MYC, and for restoring the tumor-suppressor function of proteins such as p53 and PTEN. Some paraneoplastic syndromes may persist even after the tumor has been treated. More research is needed to ensure that all patients with cancer have safe and effective therapies and the highest possible quality of life. FDA has recently approved two blood tests, known as liquid biopsies, that gather genetic information to help inform treatment decisions for people with cancer. Learn about causes, symptoms, treatment. A comprehensive analysis of patients with cancer who had exceptional responses to therapy has revealed molecular changes in the patients’ tumors that may explain some of the exceptional responses. The NCI-led study, published in Science, examined the effect of high potassium levels on T cells. Research studies show tests that analyze tumor DNA in blood, called liquid biopsies, may help detect cancer early, guide precision cancer treatment, and track treatment response. Because these newer therapies provide durable clinical benefits to only a small proportion of patients, new or revised therapeutic approaches must be developed. Certain cancer treatments can damage the heart and the cardiovascular system, a problem known as cardiotoxicity. Cancer cells with a genetic feature called microsatellite instability-high (MSI-high) depend on the enzyme WRN to survive. Breast Cancer Research and Treatment provides the surgeon, radiotherapist, medical oncologist, endocrinologist, epidemiologist, immunologist or cell biologist investigating problems in breast cancer a single forum for communication. The IAEA contributes nuclear techniques to the fight against cancer. Therefore, cancer treatment research includes developing ways to prevent or lessen the side effects of treatment. 2018 was a remarkable year for cancer research, with great strides made in diagnosing and treating various types of cancer as well as important breakthroughs looking at the health of cancer … A new NCI study identifies genes in cancer cells that are necessary for them to be killed by T cells, and therefore could be partially responsible for why immunotherapy doesn’t work in some patients. Their helpfulness in cervical cancer treatment is just being discovered, and clinical trials are underway to find out more. This year, focus at the ASCO Annual Meeting has been on a type of immunotherapy called PD-1 inhibitors. CAR T-cell therapy is a rapidly emerging form of cancer treatment, primarily for blood cancers like leukemia and lymphoma. In 2014, NIH’s National Cancer Institute (NCI) started an initiative to understand the molecular underpinnings of the exceptional responses to treatment in these patients. A drug used to treat several blood cancers, ibrutinib, has been approved by FDA to treat chronic graft-versus-host disease, making it the first approved therapy for this potentially fatal side effect of cancer-related stem cell transplants. NExT: Advancing Promising Cancer Therapies from the Lab to Clinical Trials, Biosimilars for Cancer Emerge as Patents on Widely Used Biological Drugs Expire, New approach to immunotherapy leads to complete response in breast cancer patient unresponsive to other treatments, NCI-MATCH precision medicine clinical trial releases new findings, strengthens path forward for targeted cancer therapies, Cancer Immunotherapy Drug Simultaneously Targets Two Proteins that Block Immune Response, Targeted Therapy Larotrectinib Shows Promise in Early Trials, Regardless of Cancer Type, New Cancer Treatment Approach Targets Circadian Clock, Oncolytic Virus Therapy: Using Tumor-Targeting Viruses to Treat Cancer, Gut Bacteria Influence Effectiveness of a Type of Immunotherapy, Study Identifies Potential Cause of Hearing Loss from Cisplatin, Acupuncture May Reduce Treatment-Related Joint Pain for Breast Cancer Patients, Fat Cells May Hinder Effectiveness of Chemotherapy, Expanding Cancer Clinical Trial Access for Patients with HIV, Liquid Biopsy: Using DNA in Blood to Detect, Track, and Treat Cancer, Timing and Sequence Critical for Immunotherapy Combination, Forgoing Conventional Cancer Treatments for Alternative Medicine Increases Risk of Death, Study Uncovers Previously Unrecognized Effect of Chemotherapy, Ibrutinib Becomes First FDA-Approved Drug for Chronic Graft-Versus-Host Disease, NCI study identifies essential genes for cancer immunotherapy, FDA Clears Wider Use of Cooling Cap to Reduce Hair Loss during Chemotherapy, Cancer Researchers Report Progress in Studying Exceptional Responders, Understanding “Chemobrain” and Cognitive Impairment after Cancer Treatment, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. 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